Basic Linux Commands for Beginners

 Linux Basic Command for Beginners

Linux Shell or Terminal -:

A shell is a program that receives commands from the
user and gives it to the OS to process, and it shows the output.
Linux’s shell is its main part. Its distros come in GUI (graphical
user interface), but basically, Linux has a CLI (command line
interface). In this tutorial, we are going to cover the basic
commands that we use in the shell of Linux.

open the terminal, press Ctrl+Alt+T in Ubuntu, or press Alt+F2, type
in gnome-terminal, and press enter. In Raspberry Pi, type in
lxterminal. There is also a GUI way of taking it, but this is better!

Linux Commands -:

1. pwd -: When you first open the terminal,
you are in the home directory of your user. To know which directory
you are in, you can use the “pwd” command. It
gives us the absolute path, which means the path that starts from the
root. The root is the base of the Linux file system. It is denoted by
a forward slash( / ). The user directory is usually something like


2. ls -: Use the “ls” command
to know what files are in the directory you are in. You can see all
the hidden files by using the command ls -a.

3. cd -: Use the “cd” command
to go to a directory. For example, if you are in the home folder, and
you want to go to the downloads folder, then you can type in cd
. Remember, this command is case sensitive, and you
have to type in the name of the folder exactly as it is. But there is
a problem with these commands. Imagine you have a folder named
Raspberry. In this case, when you type in cd My Files, the
shell will take the second argument of the command as a different
one, so you will get an error saying that the directory does not
exist. Here, you can use a backward slash. That is, you can use cd
My Files
in this case. Spaces are denoted like this: If you
just type cd and press enter, it takes you to the home
directory. To go back from a folder to the folder before that, you
can type cd .. . The two dots represent back.

4. mkdir & rmdir -: Use the mkdir
command when you need to create a folder or a directory. For example,
if you want to make a directory called Live, then you can type
mkdir Live. Remember, as told before, if you want to create
a directory named Live Server, then you can type mkdir Live
. Use rmdir to delete a directory. But rmdir
can only be used to delete an empty directory. To delete a directory
containing files, use rm.

5. rm -: Use the rm command to delete
files and directories.  Use “rm -rf” to delete
just the directory. It deletes both the folder and the files it
contains when using only the rm command.

6. touch -: The touch command is used
to create a file. It can be anything, from an empty txt file to an
empty zip file. For example, touch new.txt.

7. man & –help -: To know more about a
command and how to use it, use the man command. It shows the
manual pages of the command. For example, man cd shows the
manual pages of the cd command. Typing in the command name and
the argument helps it show which ways the command can be used (e.g.,
cd help).

8. cp -: Use the cp command to copy
files through the command line. It takes two arguments: The first is
the location of the file to be copied, the second is where to copy.

9. mv -: Use the mv command to move
files through the command line. We can also use the mv command
to rename a file. For example, if we want to rename the file a
to b, we can use mv a b. It takes the two arguments,
just like the cp command.

10. locate -: The locate command is
used to locate a file in a Linux system, just like the search command
in Windows. This command is useful when you don’t know where a file
is saved or the actual name of the file. Using the -i argument with
the command helps to ignore the case (it doesn’t matter if it is
uppercase or lowercase). So, if you want a file that has the word
hello, it gives the list of all the files in your Linux system
containing the word “hello” when you type in locate -i
. If you remember two words, you can separate
them using an asterisk (*). For example, to locate a file containing
the words “hello” and “this”, you can use the
command locate -i *importatnt*file.




Tip for Using Linux Command Line 

  • You can use the
    clear command to clear the terminal if it gets filled up with
    too many commands.
  • TAB can be
    used to fill up in terminal. For example, You just need to type cd
     and then TAB and the terminal fills the rest up and
    makes it cd Downloads.
  • Ctrl+C can
    be used to stop any command in terminal safely. If it doesn’t stop
    with that, then Ctrl+Z can be used to force stop it.
    3You can exit from
    the terminal by using the exit command.
  • You can power off or reboot the computer by
    using the command sudo halt and sudo reboot.



Thanks for reading this article. I hove you have
enjoy this and learn some basic knowledge about linux. 


🙏🙏🙏Thank You !!!🙏🙏🙏